The New covenant, which is an enlargement of the blessing promise of the Abrahamic covenant, is first spoken of in the book of Jeremiah. This New covenant, made exclusively with Israel, is primarily a promise of their conversion and the blessings that will come with it. Variations of the covenant are written in several places, but the best composition is found in Jeremiah 31:31-34.
“Behold, days are coming,” declares the Lord, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them, “declares the Lord. 33 “But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares the Lord, “I will put My law within them, and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34 “And they shall not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they shall all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the Lord, “for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”
Here are a few important points from this covenant:
- The covenant is made with none other than the house of Israel and the house of Judah (v. 31).
- It is not a conditional covenant like the Mosaic covenant (v. 32). It is an everlasting covenant (vv. 35-37) and an unconditional covenant. This is made clear by the phrase of God “I will,” which is repeated five times; and never does it say that Israel must do something. God alone will complete this covenant.
- The heart of this covenant, verses 33-34, promises Israel’s redemption. It may be described in four parts. First, but written last, God will forgive their iniquity. He will cleanse them from sin and make them a new person. Second, written last, God will put His law within them and write them on their heart, thus renewing their mind and heart. Third, He will make them His people. And fourth, because of their new conversion, He will cause Himself to be known by them. This new knowledge of God will be wonderful and intimate.
- This covenant is a promise from God to bless Israel, both spiritually and materially (Jer. 32:40-43; Ezek. 34:25-27).